碰撞测试假人变得更老,更好

适应性强 and 马克福格 help 人文主义 create a 3D-printed “elderly” model with use of crash test dummies.

碰撞测试假人已经成为汽车安全测试的金标准,已经有数十年的历史了。国家公路交通安全管理局(NHTSA),公路安全保险协会(IIHS)和世界各地的其他机构等组织都在不断更新对驾驶员和乘客保护的要求。 这些更新要求汽车制造商投入大量资源,以确保其汽车通过召集—而且他们在汽车上使用的碰撞假人真实地反映了这些人群将要测试的碰撞类型中发生的情况。

“Realistically” means that crash test dummies should reflect the full variety of human body types. Going beyond the first male-only dummies, the family has been expanded to include female, child, infant and, most recently, 老年 bodies. And these last 上es have turned out to be a unique challenge for 人文主义, which has operated in the realm of the design, development and manufacturing of crash dummies for 65 years.

An “elderly” crash-test dummy. Image courtesy of 人文主义. An “elderly” crash-test dummy. Image courtesy of 人文主义.

In the automotive sector alone, 人文主义 serves 100% of the OEMs and Tier I safety suppliers worldwide with these anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs), as well as calibration equipment, crash sensors and instrumentation, and crash simulation software models. Other customers include the aviation, 恩 ergy, medical, military and civil infrastructure industries.

老化并改善崩溃假人

人文主义’2017年12月推出的老年人假人代表了车辆测试技术的一项重要发展,旨在满足世界的独特特征’不断增长的人口老龄化。婴儿潮一代现在处于60年代和70年代,通常比几十年前的平均水平还要重,但他们的健康状况足以使他们进入80年代及以后的年龄。 2015年,美国有超过4,000万名65岁以上的持照驾驶员(美国交通部)。这相当于美国道路上五分之一的驾驶员。

Research has shown that 老年 occupants are more likely to sustain internal injuries during certain crash scenarios; bones are more fragile and soft tissues less robust. To reflect this, 人文主义’最新的假人捕捉了一名70岁女性,身高161厘米,体重73公斤的生物仿制品—并预计将对车辆安全社区在碰撞事件中衡量影响响应的方式产生重大影响。

Due to the nature of the industry (crash test dummies are very expensive and can be reused multiple times, so vehicle makers tend to order them in small quantities), 人文主义 is often asked to produce custom products in low volumes. As they worked to cost-effectively develop their latest 老年 dummy model, 人文主义 decided to look into 3D printing (a.k.a additive manufacturing) technology to more quickly fulfill their needs for small-batch production, less expensive replacement parts, and faster turnaround times.

(Left) 老年 crash dummy ready for testing and (right) an interior view of dummy structure. Image courtesy of 人文主义. (顶部)准备好进行测试的老年人碰撞假人和(下面)假人结构的内部视图。 Images courtesy of 人文主义.


“It’展望未来是我的工作, ” says Mike Beebe, chief technical officer at 人文主义. “I’我从事ATD业务已经38年了’我总是试图弄清楚我们今后应该开发什么新的工艺和材料。我们的主要发现之一’我们最近所做的是,我们可以3D打印很多老年假人。现在,新的老年人假人的所有组件(从骨盆到头部组件)都经过增材制造。”

3D打印为虚拟难题提供解决方案

As the 老年 dummy project began, 人文主义’设计工程师认为,防撞假人中一些昂贵的钢制部件可以用3D打印的塑料和橡胶部件代替。但是他们很难找到一种经久耐用的材料来承受其独特的碰撞测试环境的作用力和冲击。

设计 恩 gineer Kris Sullenberger is responsible for day-to-day 3D printing operations at the 人文主义 ATD manufacturing facility in Huron, Ohio. Kris operates several 3D printing machines from different manufacturers and he was looking for a way to use plastic components to replace the 老年 dummy’的钢胸罩组件。

传统工艺是用一块经过成形和热处理的弹簧钢制成的筋。然后,将一块阻尼材料粘贴到肋的内部,以控制对冲击的响应。将肋骨放置,然后进行测试,然后对阻尼材料进行多次修剪以达到所需的性能。但是该过程昂贵且不一致。钢零件会随着时间而降解,塑料和乙烯基部件会变硬和收缩—这都会影响加载到碰撞假人上的许多传感器的准确性。

Sullenberger尝试使用一家领先的3D打印制造商的塑料/橡胶混合物,但尽管该零件符合他们所寻找的许多特性,但’t strong 恩 ough. “我们用塑料3D打印了一些肋条,” he says. “但经过20次击打,肋骨开始破裂。”

寻找完美“Elderly” Rib

显示3D打印组件的碰撞假人躯干。 Image courtesy of 人文主义. 显示3D打印组件的碰撞假人躯干。 Image courtesy of 人文主义.

Sullenberger研究了其他解决方案,并与Adaptive Corporation客户经理Rich Tenaglia取得了联系。 适应性强,一家从数字到物理的产品生命周期公司,提供计划,开发,软件许可和支持,制造以及售后服务—以及Markforged 3D打印机。

Tenaglia建议他们考虑使用Markforged’s Onyx, a carbon-composite material reinforced with continuous Kevlar fibers, and he arranged to have a sample part made for dynamic testing purposes. The piece met 人文主义’规格,因此他们订购了完整的肋骨,将它们放在一个年老的假人上,进行了60-70次撞击,没有明显的变形或损坏。

“We’迄今为止已对Markforged生产的肋骨造成了150多次撞击,” Sullenberger says. “And we haven’t broken a rib yet.”

现场增材制造

After the successful trial, 人文主义 purchased their own 马克福格 Mark Two 3D printer to make ribs and other skeletal components. When the printer arrived, it took Sullenberger just a few hours to install the machine and set-up its Eiger software. “当技术人员在现场花两天时间使机器启动并运行时,我习惯了复杂的安装,” Sullenberger said. “安装“马克二号”轻而易举。我从盒子里拿出它,插上电源,就可以开始使用了。我收到的几个问题用几封电子邮件回答了。”

With production underway 上-site, 人文主义 is seeing Onyx material costs similar to those of the previous steel. And significant efficiencies are now coming from those threefold gains in rib durability over the plastic/rubber alternative they considered. Moreover, time-savings versus their original product methodologies are substantial: Manufacturing a set of ribs conventionally used to take two to three weeks. With their Mark Two, Sullenberger’的团队可以在24小时内打印出一条肋骨,并在一周内完成全部打印。

Beebe和Sullenberger继续寻找3D打印可以提高生产率的其他应用。假人上大多数较复杂的零件都是模制的。用机加工钢生产模具可能是昂贵且费时的。相比之下,他们’我们已经了解到,可以在一两天内更换3D打印模具,从而节省了40%至60%的组装和人工成本。

3D打印内脏

用于碰撞假人零件的热固性模具。 Image courtesy of 人文主义. 用于碰撞假人零件的热固性模具。 Image courtesy of 人文主义.

当然啦’不仅会遭受车祸影响的骨架:人道主义’模型还包括较软的内部器官。该公司通常按区域(例如胸部或腹部)来代表内部器官,并创建测试系统来代表每个总体区域,而不是单个心脏或肺部。尽管区域数据很重要,但他们的研究人员希望对这些区域内特定器官的特征有更深入的了解。—3D打印正在为老年人碰撞假人提供新的答案。

For instance, in the abdominal region, the liver is 上 上e side of the body and the spleen is 上 the other. To better understand the different deflection characteristics of each organ, 人文主义 has begun 3D printing organs individually to see how their qualities contribute to overall regional crash-test readings.

“We’重新尝试使胸部和腹部的僵硬程度变化以更好地预测受伤情况,” said Beebe. “We’还希望对外在的肉与这些器官之间的关系有更深入的了解。在我们的碰撞测试假人中代表所有这些特征将提供更好的测试结果。”

“老年人的骨肉往往较多,” he pointed out. “这会影响人在安全带系统内的移动方式以及安全带与乘客的互动方式’坠毁时的身体。使用3D打印技术生成新器官的能力将缩短交货时间,改善约束系统并提高车辆安全性。”

碰撞测试假人完美之路

The team at 人文主义 is optimistic about the potential for 3D printing to continue to support their quest for the perfect crash dummy. They also see the benefits of the technology extending to their customers, who might someday be able to go to a local service bureau to print the spare parts they need.

从制造的角度来看,工程师们还希望看到3D打印机在自己的生产过程中发挥更大的作用。“如果我们可以一次使用四到五台打印机,那么我们可以在一天半而不是一周的时间内打印一整套肋条,”苏伦伯格说。更快的周转速度和更高的保真度将帮助所有人(无论其年龄如何)都更安全(道路)。

更多信息

人文主义

适应性强

马克福格

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